Has to have all of this! 1. Clearly state topic with brief explanation as to why it is important to focus on this area of study 2. Documentation and incorporation of findings from the literature (what the literature says and what other people think). Use 9 or more references- sources have to be credible. 3. Sensitivity to the multiple dimensions of a topic: governmental, ethical, professional, institutional (breadth). 4. Capacity to look beyond the surface of a topic (depth). 5. Ability to articulate your personal opinion, draw conclusions, and identify where further research or investigation is necessary. Please upload all 9 sources of citation (Please see uploaded file for example of paper)
Universal Health Care System, Case For and Against
One of the issues that were strongly discussed during the recent national health care
debate were the pros and cons of universal health care and whether it can be delivered in the
United States without a fundamental change to the prevailing system. Conceptually, universal
health care can be viewed as the delivery of basic health care coverage to all individuals who
meet the minimum legal residency requirement. Its delivery can be totally governmental at
one end of the spectrum or entirely private at the other end of the spectrum, or more
commonly, a hybrid of government and private insurance companies.
Historically, through the health insurance bill of 1883, Germany became the first
nation to have some form of universal health coverage for its citizens, and currently covers
99.8% of its legal residents. Funding is mostly public and it provides universal basic health
care coverage, but allows individuals to purchase supplemental plans which could deliver
additional coverage. Premiums are capped and government provides subsidies for low
income workers (Shafrin, 2008). In United Kingdom, the government is heavily involved in
health care delivery through the National Health Services (NHS) enacted in 1948. Funding is
entirely public and coverage is extended to all legal residents (Godber, 1988). The Canadian
system is a form of single payer universal health care whereby the government is the
administrator and the payee while private companies deliver the care. Unlike the British
system, funding is public and private, with the public part of funding being shared by the
federal government and the individual provinces. Hospitals and providers are private entities
and they bill the government, the single payer, for their services (Steinbrook, 2006).
Switzerland and Netherlands are other countries with universal health care system
which covers about 99% of their legal residents. Private insurance companies deliver
coverage to individuals, either through a national exchange as in Netherlands or through
decentralized private companies as in Switzerland. Coverage is without regards to age or
pre-existing medical conditions, and in turn all citizens are mandated to purchase health care.
Even though individuals are entirely responsible for their premiums, government provides
subsidies for low income workers and poor people (Leu, Rutten, Brouwer, Matter, &
The Patent Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), signed into law by
president Barrack Obama in 2010 have the goal of providing health coverage for legal
residents in the United State. Insurance companies will be forced to compete for the hitherto
uninsured pool through state-based exchanges (HealthReform.gov., 2010). The PPACA
mandates individuals to purchase health coverage, with the provision that government will
provide subsidies for low income individuals. Insurance companies are also mandated to
cover everyone without pre-existing medical condition exclusionary criteria. Contrary to this
goal of PPACA to cover almost all residents, it has been projected that by 2019, about 23
million (8%) Americans will remain uninsured (Brown, 2011). Is universal health care the
utopia proponents portray or is it as flawed as the opponents describe? The next part of the
paper will attempt a balanced analysis of the merits and demerits of universal healthcare.
The Case for Universal Health Care
About 60% of health care coverage in the United States is employer based (Fronstin,
2007). As a result, loss of job results in loss of coverage with possible catastrophic
consequences. With universal care, there will be some form of coverage for that individual
and people will not have to declare bankruptcy to cover the cost of care. Furthermore,
employees would be able to change jobs if they wish without feeling tied to an unsatisfactory
job due to health insurance considerations. Prior to the enactment of the PPACA, over 45
million residents do not have health care due to the exorbitant cost of health care coverage.
Proponents of universal health care believe that the system would reduce the number of this
uninsured population by providing affordable access to basic care packages. In Switzerland
and Netherlands, subsidies are provided if the premium exceed 10% of the person’s income.
Up to 40% of legal residents receive such subsidies in Switzerland (Shafrin, 2008). In the
United States, according to the Congressional Budget Office (2011), PPACA “will produce a
net reduction in federal deficits of $143 billion over the 2010-2019 periods”.
Under the current system, the high premium businesses are paying on their
employees’ health care is rendering the price of their products un-competitive in the global
market. Universal health care may thus free businesses from health care expenses thereby
leading to higher profitability. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act
(EMTALA) requires all patients who present with an emergency at any hospital to be treated
regardless of residency status or affordability. The cost of treating these uninsured
individuals consequently contribute to a higher running costs for the hospitals, which means
they either absorb the costs or pass it to individuals who have coverages. Some people see
this as inherently unfair and believe that universal coverage, which would be funded by
health care taxes from everybody, would minimize the likelihood of such costs to others
(American College of Emergency Physicians, 2011). Another advantage reported by
The post DOCUMENTATION AND INCORPORATION OF FINDINGS FROM THE LITERATURE (WHAT THE LITERATURE SAYS AND WHAT OTHER PEOPLE THINK) appeared first on My Nursing Paper.